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Russia to Complete Development of S-500 ADS in 2021
Da defenseworld.net del 27 novembre 2020

S-400 missile launch

Russia wants to complete development of its S-500 air defense system, capable of destroying satellites and hypersonic missiles in low orbit space, next year.
“It should be noted that the work on developing the S-500 mobile air defense and antiballistic missile system is scheduled to be completed in 2021,” Aerospace Force Deputy Commander-in-Chief Lieutenant-General Andrei Yudin was quoted as saying by Defense Ministry’s Krasnaya Zvezda news agency.
During the Army-2020 Forum, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov revealed that the S-500 was already undergoing state trials and work was underway to purchase parts for its serial production.

The S-500 ‘Triumfator-Mor

Prometheus’ (https://www.defenseworld.net/news/27340/Russian_S_500__Space_Defense_System__to_be_deployed_this_year#.X8EM0M0zbIU) is dubbed as Space Defense System (SDS) for its ability to destroy targets in low orbit space besides hypersonic missiles, medium-range ballistic missiles and ICBMs. It is developed by Almaz-Antey Corporation which also manufactures S-400 and S-300 air defense systems (ADS).

In previous tests, the S-500 system is said to have hit target missiles from a range of 480 km, the longest range strike by any ADS. The system’s claimed range is 600 km. According to unofficial information, the S-500s will have a response time of about 3-4 seconds, less than half of S-400’s 9-10 seconds.

The main missile with the S-500 is the 40N6 missile a 30-feet long, two-stage solid fuel missile capable of reaching speeds of 9 Mach having a blast-fragmentation warhead with a range of 310 miles and 95-percent accuracy. The Prometheus will use 2 new types of missile, the 77N6-N and 77N6-N1, the first-ever Russian missiles with inert warheads, capable of destroying nuclear warheads by force of impact. The missiles will strike ballistic missiles at a height of 185 km considerably minimising the impact of their debris.

S-500 system is expected to use the 91N6A(M) battle management radar and 96L6-TsP target acquisition radar besides new 76T6 multimode engagement radars. The other components will be the launch vehicle and command posts.


Turkey May Refuse Further Supply of S-400 Systems
Da defenseworld.net del 26 novembre 2020

S-400 missile launch

Turkey may not buy additional S-400 air defense systems to be in good books with the United States and due to the latter's pressure to reject the Russian equipment.
"A situation may arise that (the USA - IF) will put conditions on Turkey that it cannot refuse. And then it may see a more profitable opportunity for deepening cooperation with the United States, including on missile defense," Alexei Davydov, a researcher at the Center for Middle East Studies at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences, was quoted as saying by Interfax.

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan however said a month ago that Turkey will not abandon the S-400s fearing U.S. sanctions. On October 24, the official representative of the Turkish defense ministry, Nadide Sebnem Aktop, revealed the systems would be put on alert regardless of the possibility of integration with the NATO air defense system.

The U.S.-Turkey tensions skyrocketed after the latter bought the S-400 systems from Russia for $2.5 billion in 2017. Washington’s attempts to persuade Ankara to ditch the systems went in vain. Soon after Russia began shipping the S-400s to Turkey in July 2019, the U.S. struck off Turkey’s name from the list of F-35 program partners.


Mysterie opgelost: de verborgen schuilkelder onder het station
Da indebuurt.nl del 21 novembre 2020

Door Jeanine Oude

Soms loop je door de stad en vraag je je ineens af: wat is het verhaal achter deze gevelsteen of deze muurschildering eigenlijk? Indebuurt zoekt dit soort raadsels graag uit. Deze week een bijzonder mysterie: er zit een schuilkelder onder het station van Almelo. Hoe ziet die eruit?

Misschien zet je wel eens je fiets in de stalling onderin het stationsgebouw. Deze fietsenstalling is toegankelijk vanuit de perrontunnel. Je zet je fiets op slot en hop, sprinten naar de trein of bus. Maar wist je dat deze fietsenkelder van oorsprong een schuilkelder is, waar mensen konden onderduiken? Je ziet hier nog steeds de stalen luiken. Maar de schuilkelder is groter dan deze ruimte.

Koude Oorlog

De schuilkelder viel onder de verantwoordelijkheid van de dienst Bescherming Bevolking. Deze dienst werd in 1952 opricht om de Nederlandse bevolking ten tijden van oorlog zo goed mogelijk te kunnen beschermen. De schuilkelder is in 1962 gebouwd, hier was (en is nog steeds) plek voor zo’n honderd mensen. De schuilkelder was bedoeld voor het geval de Russen een atoombom zouden laten vallen. De Koude Oorlog was in die periode namelijk volop aan de gang.


Wij mogen (onder begeleiding uiteraard) vanuit de fietsenstalling de verborgen schuilkelder in. Vanuit de fietsenstalling kom je bij een aantal stalen luiken en een grote stalen deur, waarachter kleine ruimtes zitten. Achter de stalen deur kon je ‘veilig’ onderduiken.

Maar omdat deze ruimte niet erg groot was, moesten veel onderduikers naar de grote algemene ruimte, waar je niet helemaal honderd procent veilig was. Dit is de ruimte waar nu de fietsen gestald worden.


In een van de ruimtes hangt een stalen luik tegen de muur, hier kon je de coördinatie doen. Achter het luik hing een telefoon. Je moest natuurlijk wel contact kunnen houden met de buitenwereld en zaken kunnen regelen. Er hangen in deze ruimtes nog een luchtventilator en een luchtdrukmeter, maar die kun je niet meer gebruiken. Ook heeft de schuilkelder een aantal nooduitgangen.

Benieuwd hoe het er verder uitziet onder het station? Hierbij nog enkele foto’s. Helaas is het (nog) niet mogelijk om zelf te gaan kijken, want het is verboden toegang. Ook na ons bezoek werden de luiken en deuren weer goed op slot gedraaid. Deze schuilplaats is inmiddels voorgedragen voor de rijksmomentenlijst en kun je misschien ooit nog eens bekijken tijdens Open Monumentendag.

Volg indebuurt Almelo ook op Instagram
(https://www.instagram.com/indebuurt_almelo/) en Facebook


Abandoned Fort Gilkicker with incredible beach views for sale
Da hampshirelive.news del 18 novembre 2020

The site at Fort Gilkicker. Picture credit: Jackson-Stops - Chichester

When the conversion is finished, it is expected that the units will range from £1.25 to £1.5m

By Mark Johnson

An amazing abandoned fort is up for sale with planning permission for a massive transformation project to take place.
The Grade II Fort Gilkicker at Gilkicker Point near Gosport is a former naval gun battery which was constructed between 1863 and 1871 to deal with the increasing threat of foreign invasion.

It had 22 gun emplacements in granite-faced casements in place to guard Portsmouth Harbour and Southampton Water.

And now, the location is due to have a conversion of the building to 22 three-storey townhouses and four apartments.

The building is on Fort Road, Gosport, Hampshire and it is being advertised on property website Zoopla.
When the conversion is finished, it is expected that the units will range from £1.25 to £1.5m.

It is being sold by Jackson-Stops estate agents.
Andrew Richardson, managing director at Jackson-Stops in Chichester, told Hampshire Live: "I have had huge interest in it. It's in such a fantastic position. The views are just stunning from the top. It's a really beautiful position.

"There is a lot of history - it was used as a Palmeston defence fort during the Napoleonic invasion.
"It was used as an air battery later on, which is why guns were moved onto the top because the threat came from the air and not the sea in the second world war, which is why they moved the guns out on to the roof.

"It has enormous charm and huge character. It is similar to two forts that are on the market at the moment with the arch vaulted sitting rooms - so it will be similar to that."
It boasts a beachfront position with spectacular panoramic views over the Solent towards the Isle of Wight.

To the back is Gosport and Stokes Bay Golf Club.
Mr Richardson added: "It's a huge project and it's not for the faint-hearted. There is too much for the average developer to do, so we are looking at the big London companies that will probably end up doing it.

"From the day they start developing them, it will probably take a couple of years to finish them. They will have to do prep work before they start the conversion work.
"There will be all sorts of different units, but they will range from £1.25 to £1.5m. And there will be a mixture of local people - who want the very best that they can get in their home town - coupled with the London market.

So that's people who will be moving down from London. "Of course, whether that will be the same in two years' time we will have to wait and see, but that's what we will probably aim for."

The price of the property is only being disclosed to applicants upon application which can be done via Jackson-Stops estate agents in Chichester It is similar to a series of forts off the Hampshire coast and can only be accessed by boat which are also for sale.


Greek S-300 Air Defence Systems Provide Cover to Turkish S-400 ADS
Da defenseworld.net del 12 novembre 2020

S-300 systems of Greece. Image via Missile defence advocacy alliance

Turkey has found Greek deployment of its S-300 air defence systems (ADS) as a convenient cover to use its own S-400 ADS against the wishes of the United States.

Turkish Defense Minister Hulusi Akar today said Ankara will use the armament (S-400 ADS) just as other members of the NATO military alliance employ their S-300 defense systems.

“Just as the S-300 [missile defense] system, which exists in some NATO member states, is used in the alliance, the S-400 system will also be used [in Turkey] in the same way,” Akar told members of the Turkish parliament's Planning and Budget Committee on Thursday, Turkish media reported.

He noted that Greece has the Russian S-300s in its inventory, along with some other NATO countries that use Russian-made weapons. Akar noted that Turkey would continue on the control and preparation process of the S-400 system "as planned."

Visit: SAHA EXPO, TURKEY -VIRTUAL AEROSPACE & DEFENCE EXHIBITION (https://www.sahaexpo.com/registration-form)

S-400 Air defence system of Turkey

He reiterated Ankara’s demand that the US form a joint working group on the compatibility of the S-400 system and F-35 stealth fighter jets. “We're ready to discuss the technical concerns of the US on the compatibility of S-400s and F-35s.” he said.

The Greek Armed Forces carried out the first test firing of the S-300 ADS at the NATO Missile Firing Installation (NAMFI) in Crete, Greece as part of the Lefkos Aetos 2013 (White Eagle 2013) military exercise. The firing occurred some 14 years after its initial purchase.

The S-300 PMU1 system was originally acquired by Cyprus from Russia in the mid-1990s, but was later transferred to Greece which is reported to have upgraded the system with Russian help.

Besides Greece, NATO member Bulgaria operates a multi layered Soviet air defence network, comprising d of S-300 and S-200 long range missile defence systems complemented by S-125 and S-75 short and medium range ADS.

The US has remarkably toned down its anti-Turkish rhetoric ever since Ankara tested its S-400 systems in October. Recent commercial events such as an agreement between Boeing and Turkish Aerospace to make aircraft composites and an earlier deal to sell GE engines to a Turkish Frigate project in Pakistan point to a possible rapprochement.


Pershing II medium-range ballistic missile returns to CCAFS after renovations
Da defence-blog/pershing del 8 novembre 2020

Photo by Airman Thomas Sjoberg

By Dylan Malyasov

The United States Space Force has announced that after nearly nine months of extreme restoration, one of only seven Pershing II surface to surface missiles in existence returned to its new home in Hangar C at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

According to a recent service news release, the Pershing II, a mobile intermediate-range ballistic missile, was transported into Hanger C on Cape Canaveral Air ForceStation, Florida, Oct. 29, 2020.

In 1987, after the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, the United States and the Soviet Union had to eliminate all short to intermediate range ground launched missiles, including the Pershing II. Only seven of these missiles were allowed to remain as long as they were demilitarized and preserved for public display. The Pershing II in the Hangar C collection happens to be one of only four remaining with the original erector launcher included.

Cape Canaveral AFS received one of the remaining Pershing II missiles because itserved as the testing site from 1982 until the signing of the INF treaty. “These missiles served as rapid response units if the Cold War should grow hot at a moment’s notice,”said James Draper, Director of the Air Force Space and Missile Museum.

The Pershing II proved its rapid response capabilities, as it launched six missiles in a matter of three hours during a nuclear readiness exercise, setting a launch day record that has yet to be broken. In 1992, the preserved Pershing II was put on display in the AFSpace and Missile Museum Rocket Garden where it stayed until renovations began atthe beginning of this year.

The restoration was completed by Guard-Lee Incorporated, who specializes in military restorations and replicas. Their eight person team “looks at the artifact and it tells us what it needs,” said Thomas Wilkes, President of Guard-Lee Inc.

In the case of the Pershing II, Wilkes explained that they took the entire thing apart,completely stripped off all the smaller components, and got down to just the structure.

From there, Guard-Lee secured sub-contractors out of the local area to handle thevarious elements of the restoration such as fixing the suspension, removing corrosion,and repainting the piece.

After the fully restored Pershing II was returned to the Cape, Draper boasted that with this restoration, the AF Space and Missile Museum has the most complete and most impressive surface to surface missile in the world on display, and that Guard-Lee went above and beyond the scope of this project.

The history of the Pershing II on Cape Canaveral is important to reflect on when acknowledging how far space operations have come, including the establishment of the Space Force.

“The Pershing II represents the evolution of rocketry,” said Draper. The addition of the Pershing II to Hangar C, helps tell the Cold War story, the Cape Canaveral story, and so many others while making it a world class aerospace collection.


Fortines en tierra volcánica: un recorrido por las defensas de la isla de Lanzarote
Da outono.net del 7 novembre 2020

Unas posiciones usadas en la Guerra de Cuba y en la Segunda Guerra Mundial

Las Canarias son desde hace siglos una región de una gran importancia estratégica para España, como demuestran algunas fortificaciones de ese archipiélago.

- Suecia: encuentra una trampilla en una vieja cabaña y acaba en una batería de artillería
- Línea P: así era uno de los fortines que tenían la misión de defender a España en los Pirineos

La Batería del Río, construida durante la Guerra de Cuba

En otro de sus siempre interesantes vídeos publicado hace unos días, el Comando Entresierras (os animo una vez más a suscribiros a su canal de Youtube) ha recorrido las viejas fortificaciones, hoy abandonadas, de la isla de Lanzarote, la tercera más poblada de ese archipiélago y con un característico paisaje volcánico. Concretamente, el vídeo muestra la Batería del Río, conocida así por la denominación que le dan los lugareños al canal que separa Lanzarote de la isla de La Graciosa. Este grupo de fortines fueron construidos a finales del siglo XIX en previsión de un posible ataque de EEUU durante la Guerra de Cuba, por temor a que los americanos también se intentasen adueñar de las Canarias.

Las defensas de Lanzarote durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

En 1939, tras el inicio de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, estas defensas fueron ampliadas por temor a que las islas fuesen tomadas por los Aliados (de hecho, los británicos estuvieron planificando una toma de las Islas Canarias como medida preventiva en caso de que España ocupase el Peñón de Gibraltar). A Lanzarote fue enviada la 5ª Batería de Campaña del Regimiento de Artillería Mixto nº8, con la cual se formó en octubre de 1940 el Grupo Mixto de Lanzarote, formado por la Batería de Río y la 7ª Batería de Campaña.

Para 1943, las defensas de la isla estaban formadas por cuatro obuses Ordóñez de 210 mm de 1891 en la Batería del Río, otros cuatro Ordóñez de 150 mm de 1885 junto al Estrecho de La Bocaina, 12 obuses de montaña Vickers de 105 mm de 1922 de la 7ª Batería de Campaña, así como 12 cañones Terni de 65 mm de 1913. A esto se añadían 6 cañones Skoda de 76,2 mm capturados a los republicanos en la Guerra Civil, 4 cañones Saint Chamond de 76,2 y 4 ametralladoras antiaéreas Hispano- uiza de 20 mm. Parte de este material (especialmente los cañones Ordóñez y Krupp) era obsoleto. De hecho, cuando se dispararon por primera vez las piezas de la Batería de Río en 1940 (no había abierto fuego desde 1897) tres de ellas sufrieron desperfectos. A pesar de todo, la isla de Lanzarote nunca había estado mejor defendida.

En 1945, al acabar la Segunda Guerra Mundial, las unidades de artillería desplegadas en Lanzarote fueron replegadas a la Península. La munición almacenada en la isla fue llevada a Gran Canaria, y las defensas fueron abandonadas. En 1973 se inauguró un mirador construido aprovechando la vieja Batería de Río. La obra, creada por el arquitecto César Manrique, ofrece a los turistas unas bonitas vistas desde el Risco de Famara, como se ve en el vídeo del Comando Entresierras:

Urbex Militar en la Isla de Lanzarote! Batería del Río

“XI Jornadas de estudios sobre Fuerteventura y Lanzarote (2003). Proyectos de artillado para Fuerteventura y Lanzarote, 1940-1943”, por Juan
José Díaz Benítez.
“El Mirador del Río”. Gobierno de Canarias.
“La Batería del Río”, por Gregorio Barreto Viñoly.


Solicitan la puesta en valor de las posiciones militares de la Guerra Civil
Da eladelantado.com del 3 novembre 2020

Trinchera de la guerra civil en El Espinar. / EL ADELANTADO

"Nuestra idea es poner en valor estas estructuras y enseñar su parte cultural y didáctica, siempre alejados de ideas políticas y leyes”, explica el concejal Jesús Gascón

Di Eduardo Redondo

Desde el Ayuntamiento de El Espinar se han iniciado los tramites para poner en valor las posiciones militares de la Guerra Civil y la creación de una ruta guiada por los diferentes enclaves que dé a conocer la vida en las trincheras. “Nuestra idea es poner en valor estas estructuras y enseñar su parte cultural y didáctica, siempre alejados de ideas políticas y leyes”, explica el concejal, Jesús Gascón.

Para ello, la comisión de Cultura de la Comunidad de Ciudad y Tierra de Segovia, a propuesta del Ayuntamiento de El Espinar, debatirá en su próximo pleno para catalogar y “poner en valor” los dispositivos defensivos que quedan de la Guerra Civil en la sierra espinariega. El proyecto es similar a uno iniciado en el año 2013 con las trincheras del Real Sitio. El objetivo es documentar y catalogar los restos de trincheras, blocaos, puntos de avistamiento y logísticos que quedan la sierra y protegerlos desde el punto de vista urbanístico y cultural. Para que todo esto sea posible varios concejales mantuvieron el pasado día 22 de octubre una reunión en la Casa de la Tierra de Segovia, con el fin de establecer una mesa de trabajo al efecto. A esta reunión acudieron historiadores, personal técnico y experto del Colectivo Guadarrama, la Comisión de cultura de la Comunidad de la Ciudad y Tierra de Segovia, vecinos interesados y conocedores del tema para estudiar la viabilidad del proyecto que se pretende poner en marcha en los próximos meses.


Los búnkeres de Mata Espesa se izaron ayer con grúas hidráulicas y se cambiaron de ubicación
Da larazon.es del 3 novembre 2020

En primer término, uno de los dos búnkeres de Mata Espesa, en Valdebebas, colocado ya en un camión de gran tonelaje. Al fondo, las grúas hidráulicas usadas para el traslado de las estructuras / Foto: Luis Díaz / La Razón

Ayuntamiento y Comunidad de Madrid preparan un Plan de Fortificaciones de la Guerra Civil

Los fortines del Cerro del Castillo en Valdebebas ya han cambiado de ubicación. Estas estructuras, construidas en el otoño-invierno de 1936 para defender el acceso noreste a Madrid en plena Guerra Civil, han sido desplazadas cien metros para dejar libre la superficie que ocupaban a las obras de ampliación del recinto ferial de Ifema.

Para llevar a cabo la operación, en primer lugar se realizó una excavación y preparación del terreno por medios mecánicos «hasta alcanzar una profundidad de unos 60 centímetros por debajo del plano de apoyo de los fortines», donde se colocaron unas vigas metálicas en cuyos extremos se produjo el «apoyo efectivo del complejo», según el proyecto de ejecución.
A continuación tuvo lugar ayer la «elevación mediante grúa hidráulica y eslingas de sujeción» hasta la nueva ubicación. En concreto fueron dos grúas de grandes dimensiones las que procedieron al izado de las estructuras de hormigón, con un peso de 102 toneladas cada una, para colocarlas en un camión de gran tonelaje que procediera a su desplazamiento hasta su nueva ubicación. El trabajo de las grúas consiste en volver a levantarlas para su asentamiento definitivo, 84 años después.

Un grupo de arqueólogos contratados por los promotores de la obra de Ifema concluyó en un informe que los búnkeres se encontraban en un estado de degradación importante, cubiertos de grafitis y en una zona vallada que no era accesible al público. A partir de ahí presentaron un proyecto donde argumentaban la imposibilidad de mantenerlos en su emplazamiento original y propusieron el traslado que acaba de llevarse a cabo, una operación nunca abordada en España, aunque sí en países como Holanda.
A raíz de este caso, el Ayuntamiento de Madrid está preparando junto con la Comunidad de Madrid un Plan de Fortificaciones de la Guerra Civil que permitirá conocer los bastiones existentes en la capital –alrededor de 1.000– y cuál es su estado de conservación. Otras 725 estructuras de carácter militar repartidas por 50 términos municipales de la región ya fueron catalogadas en 2017.

El plan propondrá actuaciones a corto, medio y largo plazo para su puesta en valor como bienes históricos.


Adaptacja konstrukcji schronów bojowych
Da hauba.pl del 2 novembre 2020

Fot. 05. Linia Mołotowa. Jednokondygnacyjny schron na armatę przeciwpancerną i ckm do ognia bocznego (OPPK) z ckm w orylonie

Adaptacja już istniejących konstrukcji schronów bojowych (OPPK)

Rysunek 03 prezentuje pierwotne rozwiązanie konstrukcyjne jednokondygnacyjnego schronu na armatę przeciwpancerną i ckm do ognia bocznego ze stanowiskiem bojowym ckm w orylonie. Obiekt tego typu, znajduje się w Zambrowskim Rejonie Umocnionym, w pobliżu miejscowości Dąbrowa lub w położonych na południe pobliskich Skłodach.

Ten typ schronu jest przykładem nieoptymalnej adaptacji istniejącej już konstrukcji. Dostęp do stanowiska bojowego w kopule jest utrudniony. Wejście do śluzy gazoszczelnej pod kopułą zaprojektowano w wydzielonej części zaplecza technicznego schronu.

Rys. 03. Linia Mołotowa. Schemat jednokondygnacyjnego schron na armatę przeciwpancerną i ckm do ognia bocznego (OPPK) z ckm w orylonie [01].

Rys. 04. Modyfikacja jednokondygnacyjnego schronu na armatę przeciwpancerną i ckm do ognia bocznego (OPPK) ze ze stanowiskiem bojowym ckm w orylonie w celu osadzenia polskiej kopuły. Położenie otworu technologicznego o zarysie ośmiokąta oznaczono przerywaną linią.

Schron z przygotowanym otworem technologicznym do osadzenia kopuły znajduje się na w pobliżu miejscowości Podemszczyzna (Rawsko-Ruski Rejon Umocniony). W przedniej obsypanej wałem ziemnym ścianie (w ścianie od strony spodziewanego ataku wroga), zaprojektowano dodatkowe pomieszczenie o wymiarach 0,7 m x 1,4 m. Spełniało rolę śluzy przeciwgazowej pomiędzy wyodrębnionym pomieszczeniem maszynowni a kopułą. Warunek gazoszczelności zapewniały lekkie stalowe drzwi o wewnętrznych wymiarach ościeżnicy 1,65 m x 0,65 m. Wejście do kopuły umożliwiały klamry osadzone w ścianie. Wokół otworu technologicznego na kopułę i śluzy przeciwgazowej zachowano wymagane grubości ścian poprzez wydłużenie bocznej ściany schronu. Strop wokół kopuły został wzmocniony.

Rysunek 04 przedstawia modyfikację standardowego rozwiązania konstrukcyjnego schronu w celu osadzenia kopuły. Otwór technologiczny (w tym przypadku) ma zarys ośmiokąta foremnego (Fot. 06) i został oznaczony linią przerywaną na rysunku 04. Zdjęcie 07 prezentuje widok śluzy przeciwgazowej od strony otworu technologicznego. W górnej środkowej części znajduje się nisza amunicyjna. W przypadku osadzenia kopuły przykryta jest podestem wykonanym z walcowanej blachy stalowej o grubości 25-30 mm. Lekko po niżej, po prawej stronie zdjęcia, widoczny jest otwór o przekroju czworokąta na przewody napowietrzające.

Opisany wcześniej sposób adaptacji już zaprojektowanej konstrukcji schronu powtórzono również w przypadku jednokondygnacyjnego obiektu na dwa ciężkie karabiny maszynowe (Rys. 05) do ognia bocznego (PPK) z dodakowym stanowiskiem ckm w orylonie do obrony strzelnic broni głównej i zapola. Schron znajduje się w pobliżu miejscowości Mosty Małe. (Rawsko – Ruski Rejon Umocniony).

Fot. 06. Linia Mołotowa. Otwór technologiczny dla kopuły pancernej w stropie schronu.

Fot. 07. Widok śluzy przeciwgazowej od strony otworu technologicznego

Należy obiektywnie przyznać, że sowieccy fortyfikatorzy w obu opisywanych przypadkach wyjątkowo dobrze wybrali położenie kopuły względem zarysu bryły schronu. Do minimum zostało ograniczone martwe pole ostrzału w kierunku przedpola dla stanowiska rkm.

Fot. 08. Linia Mołotowa. PPK – jednokondygnacyjny schron z kopułą, do ognia bocznego na trzy stanowiska ckm w tym jedno w orylonie (Mosty Małe, Rawsko – Ruski Rejon Umocniony).

Osadzanie kopuły

Zastosowanie kopuły wymagało tylko nieznacznego skorygowania procesu budowy schronu. Instrukcja dla wojsk inżynieryjnych, zatytułowana Fortyfikacje polowe (PF-39), Moskwa, Leningrad, 1941 (Наставление для инженерных войск. Полевые фортификационные сооружения (ПФ-39)», Воениздат-Стройиздат, Москва, Ленинград, 1941 г) określała harmonogram budowy i wyposażenia schronu.

Składał się z 14 etapów a betonowanie pancerzy przeprowadzano w 7 etapie.

Rys. 05. PPK – jednokondygnacyjny schron z kopułą, do ognia bocznego na trzy stanowiska ckm w tym jedno w orylonie.

W przypadku przyjętej technologii budowy schronów przez radzieckich fortyfikatorów, szalowano dodatkowo otwór technologiczny w stropie w przewidywanym miejscu położenia kopuły.

Przekrój poprzeczny takiego otworu mógł mieć kształt regularnego wielokąta lub zarys koła. W momencie uzyskania właściwej wytrzymałości konstrukcji żelbetowej budowanego schronu, w otworze technologicznym można było ustawić kopułę na wypoziomowanym stalowym podeście. Przestrzeń pomiędzy kopułą a otworem technologicznym wypełniano zbrojonym betonem.

Zastosowana metoda była porównywalna do stosowanej w fortyfikacji polskiej i francuskiej.

Natomiast w fortyfikacji niemieckiej, uważana była za obejściową (zastępczą) i stosowana w przypadku opóźnień w dostawach pancerzy.

Radzieccy fortyfikatorzy nie zakładali konieczności kotwienia kopuły do bryły schronu. Przestrzeń pomiędzy zarysem otworu i kopuły wypełniana była zbrojonym betonem. Ponad strop obiektu wystawała tylko cylindryczna część pancerza ze strzelnicami (Fot. 09).

Fot. 09. Linia Mołotowa. Polska kopuła bojowa na ckm osadzona w stropie jednokondygnacyjnego schronu do ognia bocznego (PPK) na trzy ckmy.


[01] Schron występuje w katalogu konstrukcji typowych nr 5/40 jako obiekt nr 39. (Альбом №5/40 типовых сооружений с основными габаритными и огневыми схемами для посадки на местности» Проектно-конструкторского бюро Главного военно-инженерного управления Красной Армии, 1940-го года издания


GAMA Site Greenham Common
Da locationgreenham.com del 30 ottobre 2020

Available as a location for Film, TV, Photo Shoots, Events, Commercial Storage and Prop Storage

The  former Gama Site at Greeham Common is a 76 acre site including 20 acres of concrete hardstanding and 75,000 SQ FT of Military buildings.

The site offers high security perimeter fences, roads, guard house with check point and six massive cruise missile bunkers, built to withstand a direct hit from a 2,000 pound bomb and a ten megaton thermonuclear airbust explosion.




76 acre former Gama missile storage base

Location for film, TV, events & storage (internal and external)

From small shoots to full set builds (part/daily rental to long term)

20+ acres of concrete hardstanding


USAF Minuteman III Missile Flies 4200 Miles in Test
Da defenseworld.net del 30 ottobre 2020

U.S.A.F.'s Minuteman III test on October 29, 2020.

During a test conducted by the U.S. Air Force today, the Minuteman III missile travelled approximately 4,200 miles.

The test was held by a team of Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center experts. An unarmed LGM- 30G Minuteman III missile equipped with a single test reentry vehicle launched at 12:27 a.m. Pacific time on October 29 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The Minuteman III missile’s reentry vehicle contained test instruments and traveled approximately 4,200 miles to the Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands, the service said in a statement. (https://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/2398633/afnwc-team-supports-icbm-testlaunch/)
“These operational test launches serve multiple purposes,” said Col. Erik Quigley, Minuteman III Systems director. “First, they are a demonstration of our nuclear launch capability to all potential adversaries. Second, they provide assurance of continued launch capability to any allies that rely on our nuclear forces to support their security. And third, they help validate our models of the Minuteman III fleet to ensure the ICBMs continue to meet stringent nuclear launch requirements.”
The Minuteman III flight tests are conducted under Air Force Global Strike Command’s Nuclear Weapon System Evaluation Program, as part of the Air Force’s ongoing effort to test weapon systems in training missions and prepare aircrews for future mission requirements. The program demonstrates the operational credibility of the Minuteman III, which is the groundbased leg of the U.S. nuclear triad and a key element of national security for both the UnitedStates and its allies.

The Minuteman III missile fleet was fielded in the 1970s, with an initial 10-year service life, and is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year. The launch infrastructure system spreads across five states and includes 400 missiles (under the New START Treaty requirements) on alert 24/7, 450 launch facilities and 45 launch control centers, which in some cases date back to the early 1960s.


Da radiovalldesego.com del 27 ottobre 2020

Es realitzarà amb una subvenció de la conselleria de Participació, Transparència i Qualitat Democràtica


L’Ajuntament d’Almenara restaurarà i adequarà el búnquer situat en la zona de Trascastell, dins del que va ser la línia XYZ durant la Guerra Civil, gràcies a una subvenció de la Conselleria de Participació, Transparència i Qualitat Democràtica dins del capítol de les ajudes destinades a la Memòria Històrica. L’inici de les actuacions, valorades en uns 6.000 euros, està pendent de l’autorització de la conselleria de Cultura, en concret de la Direcció General de Patrimoni. L’actuació consistiria en el desbrossament i neteja de la zona, així com també del propi blocaus que es repararia. També hi haurà senyalització del mateix i promoció en el catàleg local.

L’alcaldessa d’Almenara assenyala que “aquesta actuació entra dins de la nostra línia de recuperar el patrimoni local combinant-lo amb la memòria històrica tal com succeeix amb el Centre d’Interpretació de la Línia XYZ de la localitat” amb el que “una vegada autoritzada l’actuació i recuperat el búnquer, l’incorporarem a les rutes d’interés turístic de la nostra localitat, complementant i augmentant l’oferta actual”.


Guingamp : quel est cet étrange blockhaus, à deux pas du centre-ville ?
Da actu.fr del 23 ottobre 2020

Près de la gare de Guingamp (Côtes-d'Armor), l'imposant blockhaus de 260 m2 datant de la Seconde Guerre mondiale interroge. Il est à la vue de tous. Voici son histoire.

Un blockhaus de 260 m2 à deux pas du centre-ville de Guingamp (Côtes-d’Armor) ? Il s’agit d’un vestige de la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

1 110 m3 de béton, 56,5 tonnes d’acier. 20,80 mètres de long sur 13,80 mètres de large… Des mensurations colossales, pourtant beaucoup de Guingampais ignorent l’existence de ce blockhaus. Il se situe rue André-Lorgeré, entre la gare et le boulevard de la Marne. A la vue de tous, mais dans une impasse.

Dans le Mur de l’Atlantique

Construit par l’occupant allemand, en 1943, ce blockhaus abritait un important poste de communication (radio, téléphone, télex) sur la ligne Brest-Berlin.

Un site stratégiquement important donc, ce qui explique ses impressionnantes mensurations. Il existait dix-sept édifices de ce type dans le dispositif militaire du Mur de l’Atlantique, dont neuf en France.
Aujourd’hui, le cadastre de la Ville de Guingamp nous apprend que le blockhaus fait partie de la copropriété qui gère les deux immeubles voisins. Selon toute vraisemblance, les entrées du blockhaus auraient été condamnées à la fin des années 60, suite à la construction de ces bâtiments.

Pourquoi n’a-t-il pas été rasé ?

Si le monumental blockhaus n’a pas été détruit après-guerre, c’est parce qu’il était surplombé d’un bâtiment en bon état que les autorités de l’époque ont souhaité sauvegarder. Au sortir de la guerre, le pays fait face à une pénurie de logements. Les constructions qui ont échappé aux bombardements sont précieuses. Dans un premier temps, il est destiné à accueillir des réfugiés et des sans-abri. Puis, d’asile de nuit pour héberger les personnes avant de pouvoir prendre un train à la gare. Un peu plus tard encore, des salles de classe y ont été aménagées pour l’école des filles. Le bâtiment a finalement été rasé dans les années 1960. Le blockhaus, lui, est toujours là.


La Turquie déclare vouloir acheter des systèmes sol-air SAMP/T Mamba à la France
Da meta-defense.fr del 23 ottobre 2020

Le ministre de La Défense turc, Hulusi Akar, a déclaré aujourd’hui que son pays envisageait l’acquisition de batteries de systèmes Sol-Air à moyenne et longue portée SAMP/T Mamba pour compléter sa défense anti-aérienne.

Or, ce système est conçu par le consortium Eurosam, qui rassemble l’italien Aliena et les français Thales et MBDA, et si les relations entre Ankara et Rome peuvent encore sauver les apparences, ce n’est pas du tout le cas des relations avec Paris, qui sont depuis quelques mois des plus tendues, sur fond de crise Syrienne, Libyenne et Chypriote, et au sujet desquelles les forces turques et françaises se sont dangereusement approchées d’une zone de conflict.

Il ne fait donc aucun doute que la France refusera d’autoriser la vente de ce système antiaérien à Ankara, ne serait-ce que pour éviter de voir les appareils de combat de l’allié grec ou ses propres appareils engagés par ces missiles, très performants par ailleurs.

Les autorités turques, et le ministre Hulusi Akar en particulier, ne peuvent l’ignorer, ce d’autant que la France s’était déjà, il y a quelques mois, opposée au transfert technologique lié aux systèmes antiaériens dans le cadre du programme de système sol-air à moyenne portée turc, initialement épaulé par Eurosam.


Langport Nuclear Bomb Shelter online
Da player.bfi.org.uk del 22 ottobre 2020

Exploring a nuclear shelter just in case

Fallout or survival shelters are designed to shield the occupant from the debris and radioactive fallout of a nuclear attack. TV reporter Mike Whitmarsh travels to Langport in Somerset to look at the Mark II Nuclear Bomb Shelter from Corp Protection Ltd. The Mark II is designed in Switzerland will cost you three and a half thousand pounds and its built in manual life support system would ease the monotony of daily living. The nuclear threat was real.

In the 1980s the second cold war was a nuclear arms race between the Kremlin and the United States. Escalated by US President Ronald Reagan when he refused to negotiate with the Soviet Union over nuclear proliferation, his Strategic Defence Initiative increased US investment in nuclear arms and the proposed installation of missiles on UK soil under the then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) and the Women’s Camp at Greenham Common against the US nuclear missile defence system characterised the eighties. Reagan eventually agreed with new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev on nuclear arms reduction leading later to Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties.


Turkey May Buy French-Italian Air Defense System
Da defenseworld.net del 22 ottobre 2020

By Aishwarya Rakesh

SAMP/T Air Defense System

Turkey’s Minister of Defense Hulusi Akar today hinted at a possible purchase of air defense systems (ADS) from France and Italy.

Speaking to Bloomberg (https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-10-22/turkey-putsmissiles-spat-at-nato-s-door-on-eve-of-key-meeting), Akar stated Turkey is holding talks to buy missile systems that are of French or Italian build. “If conditions are met, Turkey can also buy Patriots from the U.S.,” he added.

The equipment Turkey is showing interest in, could be the SAMP-T air defense system, which is built by EUROSAM (jointly owned by MBDA and Thales). Notably, Ankara made an initial deal with the French-Italian consortium in July 2017 to develop Turkey’s national defense system based on the SAMP-T.

The U.S.-Turkey tensions skyrocketed after the latter bought the S-400 systems from Russia for $2.5 billion in September 2017. Washington’s attempts to persuade Ankara to ditch the systems went in vain. Soon after Russia began shipping the S-400s to Turkey in July 2019, the U.S. struck off Turkey’s name from the list of F-35 program partners. Washington has argued that the system could be used by Russia to covertly obtain classified details on the Lockheed Martin F-35 jets and is incompatible with NATO systems.

S-400 missile system

A final agreement with EUROSAM was signed (https://www.defenseworld.net/news/26126/France____Obstructing____Turkey_Eurosam_Missile_Defence_System_Project__Turkish_Official) in early 2018 for an 18-month study to determine joint production of an anti-ballistic missile system. The proposed system will be an advanced version of the SAMP-T. The European deal was seen as a counter-balance to keep its European NATO partners in good humour after it soured relations with NATO’s supreme power, the United States, over the S-400 deal.

Akar further stated the S-400 ADS will be deployed independently and not be integrated with NATO systems. It will be used as an independent system just like S-300s some NATO members use. He added that all missile systems include their own test and system control.

Purchase of the S-400s was a necessity for Turkey and it will not distance Turkey from NATO, Akar stressed.
Turkey has repeatedly pointed it began seeking ADS manufactured by other countries after the U.S. refused to sell Patriots. It chose Russian systems because Moscow offered a better deal by including technology transfer. Ankara has also proposed setting up a commission to clarify any technical issues.

Patriot ADS

On October 16, Turkey conducted the first test of its S-400 at Sinop range, irking the U.S. On Wednesday, U.S.’ NATO Ambassador Kay Bailey Hutchison said: “We, along with our all NATO allies, did whatever it takes to make Turkey give up buying missile defense system from Russia, which we recognize as an enemy. Buying a missile defense system from Russia and placing it in our NATO alliance ... this is a redline. No doubt about it.

SAMP/T Air Defense System

The SAMP/T ADS is a ground-based, road-mobile, Medium-Range air and missile defense system that utilizes Arabel Radar. Transport vehicle is Renault KERAX 8x4 truck. The ADS has 4 launchers. Interceptors are Aster 15 (range: 30km) and Aster 30 (range: 120km). The missiles can strike combat aircraft, UAVs, cruise missiles and short-range ballistic missiles. The ADS is capable of launching Salvo fire and its radar is capable of tracking up to 100 targets simultaneously. The SAMP/T ADS is presently operational in France, Italy, Singapore and Azerbaijan.


MBDA Announces VL MICA NG Missile Launch
Da defenseworld.net del 20 ottobre 2020

The MICA NG, a new infrared seeker based on a matrix sensor will provide increased sensitivity, a new radio frequency seeker with an active electronically scanned antenna (AESA) will allow for smart detection strategies.

The VL MICA NG system is based on the integration into the existing VL MICA system of the MICA NG (New Generation) anti-air missile, which began development in 2018 primarily to equip France’s Rafale combat aircraft.
The lower volume of electronic components will enable the MICA NG to carry a larger load of propellant, significantly extending its range, and the new dual-pulse rocket motor will provide additional energy to the missile at the end of its flight, improving its manoeuvrability and its ability to intercept targets at long range.

In surface-to-air mode, the MICA NG will be able to intercept targets over 40 km away. The MICA NG missile will be available in series production from 2026.

MBDA CEO Eric Béranger said: “After two years of development on the New Generation MICA missile, we have acquired a deep understanding of the performance of this brand new air-toair missile which allows us to integrate into VL MICA ground-to-air or surface-to-air defence systems.”
The dimensions of the MICA NG munition remain unchanged, allowing it to be integrated into existing VL MICA launchers. The existing missile data link mechanisms are compatible with the increased kinematic performance of the missiles, enabling current VL MICA systems to be upgraded to VL MICA NG standard by simple software updates.


What’s Behind Turkey’s silence on S-400 Air Defence System Test?
Da defenseworld.net del 20 ottobre 2020

S-400 air defense system Launch: Image via Russian MoD

The Turkish defense establishment silence on the S-400 air defense systems (ADS)’s missile interception test last week reveals more than it hides and could be indicative of a possible thawing of relations with Washington.

Ankara has refused to either acknowledge or deny that it had tested its S-400 ADS on October 16 from its missile test facility in Sinop province on the Black Sea, where it was delivered earlier this month with British-made Banshee drones for use as targets.
The United States’ reaction to Turkey’s reported firing test of the S-400 air defence system (ADS) can be described as muted as best. "The U.S. Department of Defense is aware of reports of a possible test of the S-400 air defense system by Turkey. If accurate, the Department strongly condemns the test," Pentagon spokesman Jonathan Hoffman said. "We object to Turkey's purchase of the system, and are deeply concerned with reports that Turkey is bringing it into operation. It should not be activated. Doing so risks serious consequences for our security relationship. Turkey has already been suspended from the F-35 program and the S-400 continues to be a barrier to progress elsewhere in the bilateral relationship," Hoffman said.

Significantly, the normally vociferous Trump administration has not commented on the launch and no sanctions have been slapped on Turkey as yet. In contrast, the US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced sanctions against Chinese shipping entities for dealing with Iran a day after the UN arms embargo expired against Tehran.

Sinop Missile range

Reports of test were confirmed by the Russian defense establishment a source from which told TASS on October 16, "Three missiles of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile system were launched. All of them successfully hit the designated targets."

The test firing could not have escaped confirmation from US spy satellites monitoring the region when amateur video of the launch, held soon after midday was widely shared over the internet. It is interesting to note that the Pentagon is still waiting to ensure that reports of the launch are “accurate.”

The US has gone as far as to remove Turkey as a customer of the F-35 jets, though it continues to receive Turkey manufactured parts which is expected to go on at least till March 2022. The United States has imported $531.1 million worth defense goods from Turkey during the first nine months of 2020, official Turkish data has revealed which itself tells its own story.

An October 6, 2020 contract which GE Marine engines signed with Turkey’s STM to provide LM2500 gas turbines to power Pakistan Navy’s new MILGEM corvettes (which STM is building) is further indicative of Washington’s softening stance against Ankara. In the past, the US has denied permission for the sale of T800-4As engines built by LHTEC, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce and Honeywell for installation on the ATAK helicopter for export to Pakistan.

S-400 missile system launch

On July 17 the US House of Representatives passed the Countering Russia’s Export of Arms Act with bipartisan support, which would designate the acquisition of the S-400 by Turkey as “a significant transaction pursuant to Section 231 of the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA).”

Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall, pursuant to section 231 of the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, impose five or more of the sanctions described in section 235 of such Act (22 USC 8 9529) with respect to the Government of Turkey’s acquisition of the S-400 air and missile defense system from the Russian Federation, the bill approved in the House of Representatives stipulates.

US President Donald Trump refrained from imposing harsh CAATSA sanctions on Turkey at the time, restricting the country’s reaction to eliminating Turkey from the F-35 program.

Does this mean that the Trump administration has further eased off on cracking the whip against Turkey? Ankara would not have take definitive step of testing the S-400, from which it had refrained for nearly a year, without some kind of a green signal from Washington.


Kopuła dla obserwatora artylerii 44P8
Da hauba.pl del 20 ottobre 2020

Fot. 01. Jeden z dwóch zachowanych egzemplarzy kopuł dla obserwatora artylerii 44P8 na terenie Pozycji Lidzbarskiej.

Schron – stanowisko dla obserwatora artylerii został wzniesiony w odległości około 400 m na wschód od drogi wojewódzkiej 507 z Ornety do Pieniężna a ówczesnej Reichstraße 126 z Wormitt do Mehlsack. Schron dla stanowiska obserwatora artylerii znajduje się po północnej stronie strumienia „Młyńska Struga”. Wybudowany został w 1936 roku. Posiada odporność na ostrzał B1.

W stropie schronu została osadzona kopuła 44P8 (Rys. 01. 1) dla obserwatora artylerii. Wykonano ją w klasie odporności B1. Grubość pancerza w strefie narażonej na ostrzał wynosi 16 cm. W procesie betonowania ustawiono ją na staliwnym cokole (Rys. 01. 2) o wysokości 100 cm i zamocowano za pomocą 6 kotw z ciągliwej stali do bryły stropu.

Rys 01. Kopuła obserwatora artylerii 44P8 (na postawie publikacji Westwall, Die Geschichte dder deutschen Westbefestigungen im Dritten Reich. Diter Bettingen, Martin Büren, Biblio Verlag- Osnabrück 1990 [04]).

Średnica wewnętrzna pancerza wynosząca 130 cm umożliwiała, jednemu z dwóch dyżurnych obserwatorów [01], prowadzenie obserwacji w komfortowych warunkach. Obserwator zajmuje stanowisko na składanym siedzisku (Rys. 01. 11) przy kolumnie peryskopu (Rys. 01. 5), ustawionej w pionowej osi pancerza. Po lewej stronie kolumny, w zasięgu ręki obserwatora, znajduje się pokrętło do wysuwania peryskopu do pozycji roboczej ( widoczne w przekroju poprzecznym) lub do puszczania do pozycji spoczynkowej. Otwór w sklepieniu zamykany jest lekkim lub ciężkim zamknięciem (Rys. 01. 19 lub 10). Lekkie zamknięcie otworu peryskopu używane jest tylko podczas przerw w pracy obserwatora.

Opis do rysunku Rys. 01: 1. Kuppel – kopuła, 2. Sockelring – cokół, 3. Plattform – obrotowa plat-forma, 4. Abrieb zur Plattform – napęd platformy, 5. Fernsäule – kolumna peryskopu, 6. Seitenskala – krąg kątomierza, 7. Zeiss-Winkelfernrohrlager – osłona peryskopu Zeissa – przyrząd mocujący, 8. Zeiss-Winkelfernrohr – peryskop Zeissa, 9. Schwerer Deckenverschluss – Ciężkie zamknięcie otworu na peryskop, 10. Leichter Deckenverschluss – Lekkie zamknięcie otworu na peryskop, 11. Sitz – siedzisko obserwatora, 12. Leiter – drabina.

Po prawej stronie kolumny, również w zasięgu ręki obserwatora, na pionowej osi umieszczono pokrętło do obrotu platformy (Rys. 01. 4). To pokrętło umożliwiało zmianę sektora obserwacji okrężnej przez obrót platformy łącznie z obserwatorem i peryskopem. Szybkie zatrzymanie obrotu platformy umożliwiał pedał mechanicznego hamulca. Do prowadzenia obserwacji należało ustawić peryskop [02] w oczekiwanym kierunku, gdyż układ optyczny przyrządu umożliwiał widoczność tylko w zakresie 15 stopniowego sektora.

Każdorazowe ustawienie kierunku obserwacji można odczytać na kręgu kątomierza (Rys. 01. 6). Posiadał średnicę zbliżoną do średnicy wewnętrznej pancerza. Krąg o podziałce 5 tysięcznych, zorientowany był zgodnie z siatką topograficzną 0-6400. Zmiana kierunku obserwacji wymaga zwolnienia hamulca, co odbywa się przez wciśnięcie odpowiedniego przycisku na wsporniku kolumny.

Fot. 02. Obrotowa platforma kopuły obserwatora artylerii 44P8.

Na obwodzie cylindrycznej części kopuły 44P8 wykonano 6 równomiernie rozstawionych otworów. Przeznaczone były dla przyrządów optycznych (Rys. 01. 8) do obserwacji bliskiego otoczenia kopuły. Zastosowano peryskopy [03] typu Pz. BWF 3 firmy Zeiss. Umieszczono je w przyrządach ocujących (Rys. 01. 7) osadzonych w ścianie kopuły. Pole obserwacji przez jeden peryskop wynosiło 70 stopni. Każde stanowisko peryskopu do obserwacji bliskiej posiadało swoją podziałkę na kręgu kątomierza. Była wyskalowana od -500 do 500 linii. Służyła do określenia kątowego położenia celu.

Stanowisko obserwatora i podszybie zostało wydzielone od pomieszczenia operacyjnego za pomocą ciężkich dwudzielnych drzwi. Nie zastosowano drugich lekkich drzwi gazoszczelnych. Taki rozwiązanie znalazło się w projekcie schronów (np. B1-28) o odporności B1, które miały być wznoszone jako obiekty o standardowej konstrukcji w 1937 roku.

[01] – Anweisung für die Ausbildung der Infanterie in den ständigen Kampfanlagen, Berlin 1940 lub tłumaczenie w języku polskim: Instrukcja szkolenia piechoty w obiektach fortyfikacji stałej, Katarzyna i Jarosław Chorzępa, Wydawnictwo Forteca 2005.
[02] – Na pierwsze wyposażenie kopuły 44P8 obserwatora artylerii zatwierdzono do użytku peryskop typu Pz. B.F. 2 firmy Zeiss lub SR-4 firmy Busch. Drugi peryskop spoczywał w skrzynce jako rezerwowy.
[03] – Kolejne trzy wraz z częściami zamiennymi stanowiły rezerwę.
[04] – na postawie publikacji Westwall, Die Geschichte dwe deutschen Westbefestigungen im Dritten Reich. Diter Bettingen, Martin Büren, Biblio Verlag-Osnabrück 1990.


Tajne i legende trebinjske tvrđave Strač
Da hercegovina.info del 19 ottobre 2020

Još prije više od stotinu godina, Trebinje je zahvaljujući tromeđi na kojoj se nalazi, postalo strateški pogodno mjesto za pravljenje utvrda.

Imalo je strateški položaj uz samu crnogorsku granicu, na kojem se otvarao nikšićki pravac, koji je pak mogao poslužiti crnogorskoj vojsci za osvajanje Hercegovine ili kao baza austrougarske vojske za dalje nastupanje prema Crnoj Gori.

Oko Trebinja je izgrađeno devet tvrđava koje su numerirane brojevima od I do IX, kružno oko grada, u smjeru kazaljke na satu. Sve tvrđave su označavane kao “werk”.
Jedna od najznačajnijih i danas najposjećenijih je sigurno tvrđava Strač. Građena je u razdoblju od 1910. do 1916.godine i kada bi se troškovi gradnje konvertirali u današnju valutu, to bi iznosilo oko 60 milijuna eura.

Osnovni cilj Strača bilo je kontroliranje prilaza Boki Kotorskoj i predstavlja savršenstvo austrougarske arhitekture.
Kada je planirana njegova gradnja, bile su planirane četiri kupole, a izgrađene su samo dvije. Teške su oko 55 tona, te se postavlja pitanje kako su tadašnji neimari uz siromašnu “tehnologiju” uspjeli napraviti nešto takvo, što već više od jednog stoljeća odolijeva vremenu.

“Dvije kupole koje su napravljene, debljine su oko 30 cm, što znači da su bile najmodernije za to vrijeme. Po izlijevanju su 43. i 44, a s obzirom na to da ih je bilo pedesetak, ove su napravljene među zadnjima. Sa unutrašnje strane piše “TR.S.”, a to znači “Trebinje Strač” 43. i 44.”, rekao je za hercegovina.info prof. povijesti Aleksandar Milošević.

Strač je projektiran po modelu sličnih tvrđava koje se nalaze u Italiji, ali za razliku od ostalih, građen je betonskom gradnjom, a ne kamenom. Trebao je da zaštiti ovo područje od topova kalibra 240 mm.

Gradnja je podijeljena u više etapa. Zbog kamena i krša, karakterističnog za ovo podneblje, prvo je trebalo napraviti put do mjesta gdje će biti utvrda, a zatim je došlo do izgradnje artiljerijskog bloka.
Da je Strač pravo čudo vojne taktike govore kupole M-9 od haubica 100 mm, težine 25 tona i dvije opservatorijske kupole koje su služile za promatranje i navođenjeartiljerije, te po potrebi mitraljesko gnijezdo.
Osim tvrđave, postoji mišljenje da je bila izgrađena žičara iz pravca Čičeva (selo iznad Trebinja), pomoću koje su izvlačeni cement i pjesak. U sklopu utvrde je bila i mrtvačnica sa osam limenih kovčega u koje su stavljali tijela poginulih boraca, te ih sahranjivali izvan tvrđave, što se i danas može vidjeti.

Izgradnja nikada nije završena, što je ostavilo dovoljno prostora da se o njoj ispredaju razne priče. Prekinuta je 1918. godine, u samom jeku Velikog rata.
Jedna od legendi koja je, sada već, postala gradska priča jeste da Strač ima 365 soba, a to nije točno.

“Ima između 60 i 65 prostorija, gdje su spavaonice. Nema ni čuvenih tajnih čatrnja u koje je stajalo stotine kubika vode. Bilo je oko 10 do 15 kubika zaliha vode koja je pumpana spolja pumpama, a tvrđava se snadbjevala strujom pomoću dizel agregata od 50 do 70 kilovata.

Moguće da je bio još jedan agregat koji je u godinama posle služio za osvjetljavanje Trebinja", govori prof. Milošević i nastavlja: "Strač je godinama bio zatvoren za javnost. Poslije odlaska Austrougarske, u njemu je bila nastanjena vojska Kraljevine SHS, zatim vojska Kraljevine Jugoslavije, okupacijskih snaga, i na kraju tu je bila vojska JNA."

Danas Austrija izbjegava razgovor o zaostavštini nekada jake monarhije, ali perfekcije u pogledu vojnih aspekata i arhitekture se ne može osporiti. Dokaz da je ovaj dio države jedno vrijeme bio pod austrougarskom komandom jesu brojne tvrđave koje se nalaze oko Trebinja, Bileće, Mostara, Stoca...
Uz prepoznavanje potencijala, ostaci velike sile mogli bi postati pravo turističko blago, koje bi pričalo priču o jednoj imperiji i jednom vremenu.


Mystères d’Archives: le blockhaus était un garage (ou l’inverse)!
Da lavoixdunord.fr del 17 ottobre 2020

Impossible – jusqu’à présent – d’identifier cette photographie, conservée aux Archives municipales de Boulogne-sur-Mer.

Vous êtes originaire de la région, vous êtes collectionneur ou historien, contribuez par votre connaissance du terrain ou vos souvenirs à reconnaître des personnes, des lieux, des événements, des bateaux… et ainsi permettez aux générations futures d’en garder la trace.


S-400: President Erdogan’s “Achilles Heel”? (updated)
Da semedenergydefense.com del 17 ottobre 2020

Like a lorry in downslide without brakes, Turkey continued on its path of defiance to the West with the reported missile test launch of the Russian-made S-400 anti-aircraft system on the shores of the Black Sea, to the vehement protestation of the US.

(Update 2): Defense Minister Hulusi Akar indirectly confirmed the S-400s test launch by stating that the air defense system will not be integrated into NATO systems and will be deployed independently.

(Update 1): Turkey failed to successfully test an S-400 missile system purchased from Russia, according to a report in the Russian media.

NATO-member Turkey has tested its Russian-made S-400 Triumph advanced air defense missile system, Turkish media reports said Friday, raising the specter of a new standoff with the United States.
A Haber television, which is close to the government, said on its website that Turkey’s military test-fired the S-400 in the Black Sea province of Sinop. It based its reports on an amateur video, reportedly filmed in Sinop, showing a contrail shooting into the sky. Though unconfirmed, they show narrow columns of smoke snaking into the sky over that region, that do appear to be broadly consistent with S-400 missile launches that we’ve seen in the past. Other media carried similar reports.
A source in military and diplomatic circles told TASS Russian news agency that “Three missiles of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile system were launched. All of them successfully hit the designated targets.”


— Millennium (@CanMillenniumsz) October 16, 2020

Turkish military and defense officials have initially refused to comment on the reports. According to previous reports, which were neither confirmed nor denied by the Turkish Ministry of Defense, the Turkish Armed Forces did not plan to “activate” the S- 00 batteries, but would instead undertake tests of the equipment and the readiness of military personnel.
However, two days after the test launch, Defense Minister Hulusi Akar indirectly confirmed it by stating that the air defense system will not be integrated into NATO systems and will be deployed independently, thus rendering S-400s functioning at a very small percentage of their capacity. Minister Akar stated that S-400s will be used as an independent system, just like S-300s that some NATO members use. He added that all defense systems include their own test and system control.
Mr. Akar stressed that the purchase of the S-400s was a necessity for Turkey, and it will not distance Turkey from NATO, adding that Russia was the only country that responded positively to Turkey’s needs for an air defense system. Regarding a possible purchase of the Patriot Air Defense Missile System, he said Turkey has been conducting talks to buy a defense system made by France and Italy. If the conditions are met, Turkey also can buy Patriots from the U.S., he added.


— Intelfeedia (@intelfeedia) October 12, 2020

Responding to reports of its activation of the S-400 system, the US State Department issued a statement saying that, “…if confirmed, we would condemn [it] in the strongest terms.” It warned of “potential serious consequences“ for its security relationship with Turkey if it activates the system. A US official, speaking on the condition of anonymity, said that Turkey had tested the S-400 system on Friday but did not provide details.



— SwankyStas (@StasSwanky) October 16, 2020

Spokesperson Morgan Ortagus added that an S-400 test missile launch is “incompatible with Turkey’s responsibilities as a NATO ally and strategic partner of the United States.” Ortagus, in the same statement, said that “…the US has been clear on our expectation that the S-400 system should not be operationalized. We have also been clear on the potential serious consequences for our security relationship if Turkey activates the system.”

Endangering NATO’s flights…

The live-fire test suggests that Turkey has no intention of stashing the S-400, regardless of objections from Washington or Brussels. Even if and when S-400s are activated, they will only function at a very small percentage of their capacity because they can’t be connected to the electronic surveillance network in Turkey. A NATO diplomatic source said that the system can pose a risk to Allied aircraft and can affect relations among NATO allies (see: “Will Turkey dare to dissolve NATO’s Southern Flank?”)  This is a national decision for Turkey to make, but the S-400 cannot be integrated into NATO’s air and missile defense system. The United States and NATO have been transitioning from the “Mode 4” aircraft-identification system to a next-generation encrypted “Mode 5” system. This Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system allows NATO air defence batteries and aircraft to discern whether an unknown aircraft is a friend or foe. The United States will not allow the S-400 to have “Mode 5” capabilities, as doing so would allow Russia to break NATO identification codes and quickly identify aircraft. However, excluding Turkey’s S-400s from NATO air defence systems would leave Turkey potentially shooting blind in a conflict, when life-and-death decisions are made in seconds. Accordingly, in such a scenario, Turkey would struggle to differentiate NATO from adversary aircraft, potentially resulting in “Blue on Blue” situations, that is downing either friendy NATO aircrafts, or even more its own aircrafts. This reality would make Turkey a less capable NATO ally and increase the risk for U.S. and allied pilots operating in or near Turkish airspace.

The Pentagon, separately, said that the S-400 should not be activated. “Turkey has already been suspended from the F-35 program and the S-400 continues to be a barrier to progress elsewhere in the bilateral relationship,” a Pentagon spokesman said. In response to allegations that Turkey conducted the first tests of S-400s, the U.S.’ NATO Ambassador Kay Bailey Hutchison said that it is problematic that Turkey tested S-400s within NATO territory. She added that Turkey sacrificed many benefits in order to own S-400s. “We, along with our all NATO allies, did whatever it takes to make Turkey give up buying missile defense system from Russia, which we recognize as an enemy. Buying a missile defense system from Russia and placing it in our NATO alliance … this is a redline. No doubt about it,” she explained. During a visit to Turkey earlier this month, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg reiterated that the Russian-made S-400 system cannot be integrated into the NATO air and missile defense system and can lead to sanctions by the United States.

If it is confirmed, firing the missiles would likely breach the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA), which targets those who do business with Russia’s defence sector. The U.S. has repeatedly expressed concern that Turkey’s use of the Russian made system could jeopardise NATO’s operational security and reveal intel on its next-generation F-35 fighter jet programme.

S-400 Games: How much of a real threat are…

In any case, the purchase of the Russian S-400 air defence system has been proved the most ineffective arms procurement in Turkey’s defence history. The move has deprived Turkey of the 5 generation F-35. Turkey failed to successfully test the S-400 missile system purchased from Russia, according to a report in the Russian media. Videos posted on social media appeared to show the S-400 being fired, but no explosions were observed. The videos published by the Turks show the rocket launches and it all ends there. Nowhere does the moment of the hit of the target seem to have been recorded, nor was there the sound of the explosion of the missile warhead.


— Status-6 (@Archer83Able) October 16, 2020

One expert told Avia that no flight trace of any targets were seen, nor was there any explosion of the missile’s warhead. Furthermore, the missile took a straight path, suggesting no target was engaged, according to the expert. Maybe this is the real reason why they have not released -so far- videos from the Turkish Ministry of Defense, nor has there been any other leak that proves the opposite of the Russian allegations.
However, the Turkish media reported that a total of three targets were hit, but in the numerous videos one can see only one launch, which also raises many questions. Even a video posted from the S-400 test by Uğur Giresun, chairman of the ruling AKP party Sinop’s local branch, shows three striking launches from different angles but nowhere to hit a target or targets.

The test on Friday failed because Turkey refused to employ Russian specialists, news website Avia, which specialises in military affairs, reported. The S-400 can only be tested against missiles or combat aircraft, not against small drones, the expert said. The absence of a trace of a target flight, the absence of a missile warhead explosion and the straight flight path of a missile are worrying elements. Ankara proceeded with Friday’s test of the S-400, acquired from Russia last year, despite threats of sanctions from the United States, which says the system potentially undermines NATO’s defences. Turkey and the U.S. are at loggerheads over several other regional issues including tensions with Greece in the eastern Mediterranean, and Turkish involvement in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Nevertheless, President Trump has thus far proven hesitant to impose penalties on Turkey over the issue. If confirmed, these S-400 tests appear to be another example of a broader strategy of asserting Turkey’s independent foreign policy aspirations and increasing its geopolitical influence from the Black Sea through to the eastern Mediterranean, one that has already caused significant frictions with its traditional allies.

Last but not least, investors are concerned that an increased probability of sanctions will lead to more losses for the fragile Turkish lira and further destabilise the country’s economy. The lira traded down 0.3 percent at 7.528 per dollar on Friday, just off an all-time low reached last week of 7.9591 per dollar.


Turkey Conducts First Test of Russian S-400 Missile Systems: Social Media Reports
Da defenseworld.net del 16 ottobre 2020

Screenshot of video reportedly showing S-400 being transported to Sinop for tests next week (via social media)

Turkey has reportedly conducted the first test of S-400 air defense system (ADS) it bought from Russia, today.

On October 16, photographs and video from the purported test being circulated in the social media show a column of smoke rising. According to Turkish media reports last week, the ADS was being transported to Sinop
(https://www.defenseworld.net/news/28033/Turkey_Preparing_for_S_400_Test_in_Black_Sea#.X4mQRdAzbIU) located on the Black Sea coast. Turkish authorities had closed the area from October 13-16 saying “Practice shooting will be carried out” in the region. The area had been declared “dangerous” for mariners.

Earlier, a government official told the Turkish Minute (https://www.turkishminute.com/2020/10/02/exclusive-turkey-to-test-s-400-air-defensesystem-october-5-16-official-correspondence-reveals/) that 10 Banshee air targets were delivered to Sinop for S- 00 tests. Tests will be carried out to check the combat readiness of the S-400, the radar’s ability to detect and track targets, the capabilities of communication system, as well as check the fire control systems.


Alaejos pide a la Diputación que se implique en la restauración del castillo
Da elnortedecastilla.es del 13 ottobre 2020

Di Patricia Gonzales

Aspecto de uno de los túneles del castillo. / P. G.

El Estado cedió en 1974 a la institución provincial los restos de las fortalezas de la provincia para su recuperación

Según explicó el alcalde de la localidad, Carlos Mangas, en octubre de 1974 se cedió por parte del Estado a la Diputación de Valladolid los restos de castillos de varios municipios, entre los que están los de Alaejos, con la finalidad de atender a su conservación: «Queremos un convenio entre ambas instituciones para desarrollar esta actuación y así poder recuperar y consolidarlos para convertirlo en un recurso turístico más del municipio».
El castillo de Alaejos, construido en el siglo XV por Alonso de Fonseca, es una fortaleza que forma parte de los denominados castillos de la 'Escuela de Valladolid', según explican desde el Ayuntamiento, que se refiere a la importancia que tiene por su forma constructiva, «siendo uno de los pocos con las bóvedas artilleras construidas en ladrillo y que hoy ya no existen. Solo se conservan sus arranques en ciertos restos».
Al parecer, en esta fortaleza se produjo el encierro de la reina de Castilla Doña Juana de Avis, esposa de Enrique IV, sus amores y embarazo, por lo que el rey se inclinó por nombrar a su hermana Isabel como sucesora al trono de Castilla, en vez de su hija, la conocida como Juana la Beltraneja. También la derrota comunera en Alaejos, en 1520, tras varios meses de asedio y acoso al castillo, se convierten en la primera batalla perdida por las tropas comuneras en la guerra de las comunidades.

En la actualidad los restos del Castillo están enterrados, y los que están descubiertos requieren de un proceso de consolidación para impedir el deterioro y desaparición de estos vestigios históricos. En los últimos años se han realizado diversas inversiones por parte del Ayuntamiento de Alaejos para impedir que siga el deterioro y la desaparición de estos restos.


Un operario arregla las escaleras.. / P. G.

Desde 2009

En 2009 tuvieron lugar las primeras prospecciones arqueológicas y un año después se llevó a cabo el proyecto de acondicionamiento del acceso y entorno del castillo. En 2014 se aprobó el proyecto de demolición de vivienda y acceso al castillo, en 2015 el proyecto de itinerario visitable y en el 2017, el correspondiente a la cubrición provisional de entradas a galerías, entre otras.

En la actualidad tiene su plan director de trabajo para la recuperación del castillo y se están llevando a cabo el vaciado y puesta en valor de los túneles y galerías subterráneas del castillo, como primer paso del plan director. «Cuarenta y seis años después de esta cesión, la Diputación de Valladolid no ha invertido ni colaborado en la conservación ni restauración de esta fortaleza en ninguna ocasión», subraya Mangas, quien añade que se insta a solicitar su ayuda «conociendo el interés actual de la Diputación por poner en valor los diferentes castilloss de Valladolid, para convertirlos en un recurso turístico que genere una dinamización económica y cultural de la provincia».


It may cost a bomb… but it will protect you from one! London home that was once a nuclear bunker and is now billed as a ‘Covid refuge’ goes on sale for £10million
Da dailymail.co.uk del 9 ottobre 2020

Seafield House in North London, used to be a bunker for military commanders during the Cold War, now it's a £10million home

The bunker was one of four 'civil defence war rooms,' in London, with space for 50 staff and steel blast doors to protect them

Because of its history as a former nuclear bunker, the multi-million pound home has been billed as perfect for a playboys, secretive businessmen or even celebrities looking to dodge the paparazzi

After an incredible makeover, the home now boats five bedrooms, six bathrooms, two kitchens, a cinema, a sauna and a pool
The former

• Seafield House in Mill Hill, North London, was built as a Cold War-era bunker for military commanders to use
• It is now a £10million home that boasts five bedrooms, six bathrooms, two kitchens, a cinema and a 30ft pool • The home has been billed as fit for a secretive businessman, celebrities avoiding paparazzi, or even a playboy


Its concrete walls are thick enough to withstand a 500lb bomb and its massive steel doors were built to repel all Cold War intruders.
Now this vast nuclear bunker is being sold as a luxury refuge from a very different threat: Covid.
The £10million home is billed as fit for a ‘secretive businessman, celebrity avoiding paparazzi, young or old playboy, trophy hoarder, car collector, original thinker or eccentric intellectual’.

The former bunker boasts two sprawling kitchens, with space to eat outside for families - a far cry from its days as a shelter

The building, originally made to serve military commanders in the event of attack, became run down and the victim of vandals

The sauna is part of a wealth of new rooms that have transformed the old bunker into a luxury home for a family or playboy

Despite being in a 'dull' part of North London, the transformed home boasts scenic views from its outdoor eating area

In the early 1950s, Seafield House in Mill Hill was one of four ‘civil defence war rooms’ for London – the place where military commanders hoped to live through a nuclear attack.
Behind the blast doors there was room for 50 staff to live and sleep.
There were communications rooms to bring in news from outside and a ventilation system to filter radioactive fallout.

The bunker originally went up for sale for £4.5million, its value has more than doubled since, but the seller doesn't seem to fond of the area, describing it as a 'dull north-west London suburb with nothing on offer'

Thanks to a ‘grand designs’ refurbishment, it is now fit for a luxury lockdown –with five bedrooms, six bathrooms, two kitchens, a cinema, a sauna and a 30ft pool.

It first went on the market in 2010 for £4.5million.

But despite it having doubled in price since then, there are signs the present owner isn’t wild about the neighbourhood.

The property description reads: ‘In a dull north-west London suburb with nothing on offer.’



Turkey Preparing for S-400 Test in Black Sea
Da defenseworld.net del 9 ottobre 2020

Screenshot of video reportedly showing S-400 being transported to Sinop for tests next week (via social media)

Turkey is all set to test its S-400 air defense systems near Sinop on the Black Sea coast next week.
Turkish authorities have closed the area from October 13-16 saying “Practice shooting will be carried out” in the region. The area has been declared “dangerous” for mariners.
Although Turkey has not mentioned anything about the S-400 test, local media in Sinop published photographs and video footages of a convoy of heavy vehicles carrying S-400 missile systems.

Earlier, a government official told the Turkish Minute (https://www.turkishminute.com/2020/10/02/exclusive-turkey-to-test-s-400-air-defense-systemoctober-5-16-official-correspondence-reveals/) that 10 Banshee air targets were delivered to Sinop for S- 00 tests. Tests will be carried out to check the combat readiness of the S-400, the radar’s ability to detect and track targets, the capabilities of communication system, as well as check the fire control systems.
An AviaPro report in July said the S-400 radar system had the opportunity to 'detect' the presence of U.S. stealth fighter jets at least thrice. Russia’s TASS (https://tass.com/world/1175927)also that a Turkish defense ministry official “confirmed” Ankara’s testing of its S-400s against U.S.-made F-16 fighter jets last year. "Yes, such trials have indeed taken place last November," the source allegedly said.

The U.S.-Turkey tensions nosedived after the latter bought the S-400 systems from Russia for $2.5 billion in 2017. Washington’s attempts to persuade Ankara to ditch the systems went in vain. Soon after Russia began shipping the S-400s to Turkey in July 2019, the U.S. struck off Turkey’s name from the list of F-35 program partners.


Russia Could Use Hypersonic Missile as Bargaining Chip in Arms Control
Da defenseworld.net del 8 ottobre 2020

Tsirkon Hypersonic Missile Launch @MoD Russia

Russia could use its Hypersonic anti-ship missile, “Tsirkon” as a bargaining chip in arms control negotiations with the United States.
The Russian ambassador to the US, Anatoly Antonov, said yesterday that the successful tests of the newest Russian hypersonic missile Tsirkon (also spelt as "Zircon") gives confidence to Russian diplomats in the United States in arms control negotiations.

“This directly affects our work in Washington. You feel more confident, calm and comfortable when you negotiate with your colleagues on strategic stability issues, on arms control issues,” Russia 1 TV channel quoted him as saying.
This could be the first time a conventionally-armed missile with a relatively short range (450 kms-according to the Russian MoD) will be used as a bargaining chip in tough USRussia arms control negotiations.
While the US and Russia have focused on reducing missiles armed with nuclear warheads, neither side will take the first strike option given the propensity for the other side to reply with a nuclear strike not to mention the horrendous human casualties caused by a nuclear blast.

With the Tsirkon, however, the strike could be limited to a single aircraft carrier or missile carrying frigates bringing back fears of the Pearl Harbour attack. The confidence that Russia has in the missile as a negotiating tool stems from the fact that currently the US has nothing matching the Tsirkon.


Ooit bood kazemat XI in Den Oever bescherming tegen de vijand. Nu gaat de zaag er in om plaats te maken voor de aanleg van een nieuw gemaal
Da noordhollandsdagblad.nl del 7 ottobre 2020

© Foto Rijkswaterstaat/Jan Wessels

Winnie van Galen


Een bunker slopen met muren en een dak van zo’n twee meter dik is een pittige klus. Veel bunkers blijven dan ook maar staan, zeker als ze een monumentale status hebben.

Voor deze bunker, die onderdeel uitmaakt van de Stelling Den Oever, loopt het even anders. Een derde gedeelte van dit betonnen militaire verdedigingswerk (formeel kazemat XI) moet er af.
Lees ook: De zaag gaat in een bunker bij Stelling Den Oever die ooit bescherming bood tegen vijand uit het oosten [video]
Dat is nodig voor de bouw van een nieuw gemaal waarmee IJsselmeerwater op de Waddenzee is te lozen.  De aanleg van de Stelling Den Oever begon in 1932 en kwam vier jaar later gereed.
De gedachte was dat met de voltooiing van de Afsluitdijk in 1932 de vijand vanuit het oosten rechtstreeks naar Amsterdam en verder kon doorstoten. Kazemat XI (14,6 meter lang en 20 meter breed) bevatte oorspronkelijk logieslokalen voor manschappen en officieren, opbergplaatsen voor munitie en levensmiddelen, een centrale ruimte en een keuken.
In de jaren ’50 werd deze bunker verbouwd tot ziekenhuis. Stelling Den Oever bestaat uit ruim tien bunkers.

De kazemat van bovenaf gezien. Met een witte stippellijn is de plek voor de betonzaag aangegeven. © Foto Rijkswaterstaat/Jan Wessels

Nadat de zaag in de bunker een lijn getrokken heeft, komt het sloopwerk op gang. © Foto Rijkswaterstaat/Jan Wessels

Fijn dat u bij ons terecht bent gekomen, net als vele lezers met u.

Daarvoor zijn wij als redactie immers iedere dag hard aan het werk: het bereiken van de lezer. Met betrouwbaar nieuws, en in ons geval vooral het nieuws van ’om de hoek’ en uit de regio. Precies daar waar uw dagelijks leven zich afspeelt.
Betrouwbaar nieuws is een kostbaar goed, zeker in tijden van fakenieuws, hypes en frames op social media en het internet. Dan is het fijn wanneer er nieuwsmerken bestaan die hun verhalen, reportages en interviews onafhankelijk en vrij kunnen brengen. Ook op internet.
Dat kan uiteraard niet voor niets. Zonder overheidssteun en ook niet gedreven door advertenties (wij  stemmen onze inhoud nooit af op de adverteerder) zijn wij volledig afhankelijk van abonnees. Goede journalistiek is niet gratis. Zonder abonnees kunnen wij niet doen wat ontzettend belangrijk is in een vrije samenleving: (lokale) overheden volgen, maatschappelijke trends signaleren, menselijke verhalen optekenen en een podium zijn voor debat en discussie.
Elke bijdrage van een lezer is daarom waardevol voor onze toekomst en die van de regionale journalistiek.
Ons steunen met een abonnement kan al vanaf 1,04 euro per week. Tienduizenden gingen u al voor. En voor die mensen doen wij elke dag onze uiterste best.


Turkish Armed Forces to Activate, Test S-400 Air Defence System
Da defenseworld.net del 5 ottobre 2020

Turkish armed forces have commenced the process of activating and testing the S-400 Air Defense System (ADS) purchased from Russia at a training ground near the northern city of Sinop.
In preparation for the test, 10 Banshee air targets will be delivered to the Sinop missile range for the S-400 tests, which are to take place from October 5 to 16, Turkish Minute (https://www.turkishminute.com/2020/10/02/exclusive-turkey-to-test-s-400-air-defensesystem-october-5-16-official-correspondence-reveals/)  reported, citing official government correspondence.

"Test launches of the S-400 system will be carried out at the Sinop missile range from 5 to 16 October 2020 to test the combat readiness of the S-400, the ability to detect and track the radars of the system, the capabilities of the communication system, as well as to test fire control and command control," - the document reads, according to the publication.

According to the document, the Turkish President had authorized the preliminary activation of the system to test the capabilities of the radars at the Myrted airfield near Ankara from September 28 to October 2 2019.
It was during this time reports had emerged of the Turkish S-400 ADS tracking Turkish F-16s and US F-35s as they flow close to the Caspean Sea
The documents seen by Turkish Minute states that during the tests, the commanders at the observation post will have to obtain permission from the Turkish President for each missile launch two hours before it.
S-400 batteries, 10 air targets, a ground control station for drones and other necessary equipment were to arrive from the Myrted airbase in Sinop on October 5.
After deployment near Sinop, the S-400 batteries will have to fire at aerial targets from October 5 to 16, the document reads, says Turkish Minute.
The activation may further aggravate relations between the US and Turkey as Washington has already the sale of F- 35 jets and US politicians are clamoring for sanctions to be imposed on Ankara for buying Russian equipment.


US to Sell Switzerland PATRIOT Missile Units Worth $2.2 billion
Da defenseworld.net del 2 ottobre 2020

The US State Department approves a possible Sale to Switzerland of five Patriot Configuration-3+ Modernized Fire Units for an estimated cost of $2.2 billion. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency delivered the required certification notifying Congress of this possible sale September 30.
The Government of Switzerland requested to buy five (5) Patriot Configuration-3+ Modernized Fire Units, consisting of: five (5) AN/MPQ-65 Radar Sets; five (5) AN/MSQ-132 Engagement Control Stations; seventeen (17) M903 Launching Stations; up to seventy (70) Patriot MIM-104E Guidance Enhanced Missile Tactical (GEM-T) Missiles; seven (7) Antenna Mast Groups; five (5) Electrical Power Plants (EPP) III; and six (6) Multifunctional Information Distribution System Low Volume Terminal (MIDS-LVT) (11) Block Upgrade Two (BU2). The prime contractors will be Raytheon Corporation and Lockheed-Martin.

This notice of a potential sale is required by law. The description and dollar value is for the highest estimated quantity and dollar value based on initial requirements. Actual dollar value is expected to be lower depending on final requirements, budget authority, and signed sales agreement(s), if and when concluded


El castillo de La Herradura se inaugura como museo de la Armada en marzo
Da ideal.es del 1 ottobre 2020

Este primer centro cultural de la pedanía sexitana recreará el hundimiento en la costa granadina de veinticinco naves en 1562, donde murieron cerca de 5.000 personas


LA Herradura inaugura su primer museo el 19 de marzo, coincidiendo con la fiesta local en honor de San José, patrón de la localidad. El Castillo herradureño se ha convertido en un espacio cultural que recordará el naufragio de 1562, donde se produjo el hundimiento de 25 naves durante el reinado de Felipe II y muerieron 5.000 personas.

El proyecto del museo histórico, que se vió frenado por el estado de alarma motivado por la pandemia, se hará realidad a mediados del mes de marzo, según ha manifestado el teniente de alcalde y delegado de Turismo y Playas, Daniel Barbero.

«La tramitación está muy avanzada. Ya se celebró la mesa de contratación para conocer las cuatro propuestas presentadas por distintas empresas, para el montaje e instalación que acogerá el Castillo de La Herradura», dijo Barbero En estos momentos el procedimiento sigue su curso con la apertura de plicas que recogen las propuestas técnicas y económicas para adjudicar el montaje.

La ejecución de este importante proyecto, cuantificado en su totalidad en 140.000 euros con colaboración de la Junta, pondrá en valor un bien patrimonial de extraordinaria riqueza monumental, dinamizando el municipio y el entorno con un espacio histórico que se sumará a la oferta turística y cultural del municipio, enriquecida con la puesta en valor y apertura de este museo tan singular en el que turistas, visitantes y vecinos podrán conocer y adentrarse en épocas pasadas, a través de los hechos históricos más significativos acaecidos en La Herradura.

«La idea es crear un contenido interpretativo, no ya del patrimonio construido, sino de la navegación y de la historia asociada a dicho patrimonio, tematizando la visita y contextualizando el acontecimiento histórico del naufragio de La Herradura, y principales hechos históricos de La Herradura, creando de esta forma una visita adaptada a un público de perfil turístico y escolar. Mejorando la experiencia de visita y aumentando la oferta turística y cultural de la localidad», afirmaba el teniente de alcalde de Turismo y Playas.
El Ayuntamiento de Almuñécar es propietario desde principios del año 2005 del Castillo de La Herradura, situado dentro del núcleo urbano del mismo nombre, a 120 metros de distancia a la bahía, restaurado por el equipo técnico de la Escuela de Estudios Árabes, dirigido por los doctores arquitectos, Antonio Almagro Gorbea y Antonio Orihuela Uzal. Durante el es de marzo de 2011 se finalizaron la totalidad de las obras de restauración exterior e interior del propio Castillo, así como, los trabajos de acondicionamiento del entorno del recurso, dotándolo de todo el esplendor e infraestructura necesaria para su uso como antesala del propio monumento como de espacio ajardinado de libre acceso para los turistas, visitantes y residentes. En estos trabajos se realizaron también la señalización mediante la instalación de paneles con textos en español e inglés con la descripción de las distintas zonas que componen el Castillo; además de dotar a la fortaleza de 3 réplicas de cañones que fueron instaladas en la batería.